History of Communist Party 1920-2020

The Formation of Communist Party of India (Marxist)

THE Seventh Congress of the Communist Party was held from October 31 to November 7, in Calcutta. This Congress marked the culmination of the struggle against revisionism within the united Party. It marked a programmatic, organisational and ideological break with revisionism. This also meant a complete demarcation on the tactics to be pursued by the Party. The Seventh Congress was a turning point in the history of the communist movement in the country.

Tenali Convention – Harbinger for the Formation of a Revolutionary Party

THE more than decade long struggle against revisionism reached a point of no return by the year 1964. On 11 April, 32 members of the National Council walked out of the Council meeting in protest against the attitude of the leadership, the way they were violating all communist norms and practices and taking down the Party in a revisionist line, in violation of all the accepted decisions. These 32 members issued a joint appeal to all the Party members on 14 April 1964. This statement laid the path for the emergence of a stronger Communist Party.

Assault on the Party – 1962-63

IN order to fight the third general elections in 1962, inner Party differences were pushed to the background. The crux of the election tactics decided was to break the monopoly of power of the Congress as it was proving to be a hindrance to the development of democracy and the ‘advancement of people’s cause’. Call was given to increase the representation of communists in the parliament and also in various state legislatures.

Sixth Congress – Last United Congress

THE intervening period between the Fifth Congress and the Sixth Congress saw many momentous developments in the political life of the country and also within the Communist Party. Two biggest events that had dominated the Indian political scene after the Amritsar Congress, were the developments in Kerala and the deterioration of India-China relations. While the Party unitedly launched protests against the dismissal of the Communist government in Kerala throughout the country, the later gave rise to serious differences inside the Party.

Tasks Among the Peasant Masses – II

Excerpts from the resolution Tasks Among the Peasant Masses’, adopted by the Central Committee of the Communist Party in its meeting in April 1954

“ONE of the important tasks of the Kisan movement is to demand the government to take measures to free the peasants from the machinations of the foreign and Indian monopolists and give protection to the peasant producers by guaranteeing economic prices for his product.

Tasks Among the Peasant Masses – I

THE Central Committee of the Communist Party adopted a resolution on the ‘Tasks Among the Peasant Masses’, in its meeting in April 1954. This resolution dealt with the questions related to “ceiling, ‘right of resumption’, rent reduction, tax burdens, economic price for the peasants’ produce, indebtedness, consolidation of holdings and prevention of fragmentation, cooperative societies, panchayats, irrigation facilities, demands of agricultural labourers and the problems of building and activising Kisan organisations”.

Party Work in Trade Unions – 1952

After the Communist Party was allowed to function legally, for the first time since its formation, it organised a Convention of Party cadre working in the Trade Union front (AITUC in the main, but also other trade unions). Around 300 comrades attended this two-day convention held in Calcutta, in 1952, where the Party’s approach to the workers’ issues and methods to be adopted while working in the TU front were discussed, decided and certain directions were given.

Anti-betterment Levy Struggle in Punjab

THE heroic struggle of the Punjab peasants against the betterment levy in 1959, added a glorious chapter to the history of the Indian peasant movement. After the epoch making struggle of Telangana, this was the biggest struggle fought in the post-independence period where the widest possible unity of the peasants was forged and the peasants were able to win the support of the agricultural workers and other sections of the population, irrespective of their political affiliations.

Historic Bengal Food Movement of 1959

THE struggle for food, waged by the people of West Bengal is an immortal saga, written in the blood and suffering of people roused to action in defence of their right to live. The struggle for food started on July 13, 1959 and continued till September, in which dozens of people died due to the then Congress government’s brutal repression – hundreds more were injured and thousands incarcerated. The struggle assumed the form of a huge upsurge of the entire people of Bengal.

Special Congress 1958: On the Back of Electoral Victories and Intense Debates

THE period from 1957 was one of gradually intensifying debate inside the Communist Party over fundamental ideological issues. However, the Party put aside all its ideological differences and rallied unitedly in the fight to defeat the Congress Party in the second general elections held in 1957. Though the Congress retained power at the centre and in all states, except Kerala, a massive change took place in the political landscape of the country.


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